The Functional Dexterity Test (FDT)


​The Functional Dexterity Test was created and developed by Dorit Aaron,  Aaron & Winthrop are donating all proceeds of the FDT to the American Hand Therapy Foundation (AHTF)


The FDT was developed to test dexterity quickly in a busy clinic yet provide information regarding the patient's ability to use the hand for daily tasks requiring a 3-jaw chuck prehension (using fingers and the thumb).


It has now been standardized for use with both pediatric and adult populations.

-Test is small, portable and easy to administer.

-Takes less than two minutes to perform.

-Hardwood board measures 8" (21cm) square, and has a locking cover.

-The 16 wooden pegs measure 9/10" (2.2cm) in diameter and 1-6/10" (4.0cm) in length.

-Equipment standards, testing instructions, reliability, validity and normative data based on numerous clinical studies performed over 20 years.

-Test involves turning all the pegs over as quickly as possible using the non-injured hand, followed by a timed test of each hand.“Time Only” score quantifies the speed of hand dexterity and the “Time plus Penalty” score quantifies the quality of the performance.

-Includes a Functional Level Score Sheet based on hand dominance and normal speed performing activities of daily living using a three-jaw chuck prehension pattern.

-Test is now applicable for all ages.



Dorit Aaron, Caroline Jansen, “Development of the Functional

Dexterity Test (FDT),” Journal of Hand Therapy, 16. (Jan.-Mar 2003): 12-21.

FDT picture.png
FDT picture.png

press to zoom
Cong case 1 with FDT validation 017.jpg
Cong case 1 with FDT validation 017.jpg

press to zoom
Cong case 1 with FDT validation 018.jpg
Cong case 1 with FDT validation 018.jpg

press to zoom
FDT picture.png
FDT picture.png

press to zoom

The FDT can be purchased at 


All proceeds go to the

 Camden M Tissue MD, Paul F Velleman, PhD, Caroline W. Stegink-Jansen PT Phd CHT, Dorit Haenosh Aaron, MA OTR CHT FAOTA, Barbara G. Winthrop, OTR MA CVE CHT FAOTA, Gloria R. Gogola, MD (2016). Validity and reliability of the Functional Dexterity Test in children. Journal of Hand Therapy, Vol, Issue p1-6 

Gogola, G. R., Velleman, P. F., Xu, S., Morse, A. M., Lacy, B., & Aaron, D. (2013). Hand Dexterity in Children: Administration and Normative Values of the Functional Dexterity Test. The Journal of hand surgery, 38(12), 2426-2431.


Netscher, D. T., Aliu, O., Sandvall, B. K., Staines, K. G., Hamilton, K. L., Salazar-Reyes, H., & Thornby, J. (2013). Functional Outcomes of Children With Index Pollicization for Thumb Deficiency. The Journal of hand surgery.


Sartorio, F., Bravini, E., Vercelli, S., Ferriero, G., Plebani, G., Foti, C., & Franchignoni, F. (2012). The Functional Dexterity Test: Test–retest reliability analysis and up-to date reference norms. Journal of Hand Therapy.


van de Ven-Stevens, L. A., Munneke, M., Terwee, C. B., Spauwen, P. H., & van der Linde, H. (2009). Clinimetric properties of instruments to assess activities in patients with hand injury: a systematic review of the literature. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 90(1), 151-169.


Yancosek, K. E., & Howell, D. (2009). A narrative review of dexterity assessments. Journal of Hand Therapy, 22(3), 258-270.


Schoneveld, K., Wittink, H., & Takken, T. (2009). Clinimetric evaluation of measurement tools used in hand therapy to assess activity and participation. Journal of Hand Therapy, 22(3), 221-236.


Vyskotová, J., & Vaverka, F. (2009). A test of manipulation functions using the constructional set" Ministav" in physiotherapy and the verification of its reliability. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 37(3), 49-56.


Videler, A. J., Beelen, A., Van Schaik, I. N., de Visser, M., & Nollet, F. (2008). Manual dexterity in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type 1a: severity of limitations and feasibility and reliability of two assessment instruments. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 40(2), 132-136.


van de Ven-Stevens, L., Munneke, M., Spauwen, P. H., & van der Linde, H. (2007). Assessment of activities in patients with hand injury: a review of instruments in use. The British Journal of Hand Therapy, 12(1), 4-14.


Blennerhassett, J. M., Matyas, T. A., & Carey, L. M. (2007). Impaired discrimination of surface friction contributes to pinch grip deficit after stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 21(3), 263-272.


Buffart, L. M., Roebroeck, M. E., Pesch-Batenburg, J. M., Janssen, W. G., & Stam, H. J. (2006). Assessment of arm/hand functioning in children with a congenital transverse or longitudinal reduction deficiency of the upper limb. Disability & Rehabilitation, 28(2), 85-95.


Lee-Valkov, P. M., Aaron, D. H., Eladoumikdachi, F., Thornby, J., & Netscher, D. T. (2003). Measuring normal hand dexterity values in normal 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children and their relationship with grip and pinch strength. Journal of Hand Therapy, 16(1), 22-28.


Shahar, R. B., Kizony, R., & Nota, A. (1998). Validity of the Purdue Pegboard Test in assessing patients after traumatic hand injury. Work, 11(3), 315-320.